We know that not all patients with AMD will convert to the exudative and highly vision-threatening form of the disease. Therefore, it is important to be familiar with high-risk clinical features so that individuals at high-risk for conversion can be identified. Early detection of exudative AMD is of utmost importance so that treatment may be instituted without delay and vision can be saved.
If you have a patient whose dry eye is not improving despite treatment, it’s time to consider inadequate eyelid closure, sometimes referred to as nocturnal lagophthalmos. This form is far less obvious, as this under-identified and under-treated condition is caused by nocturnal evaporative stress (NES) and is highly prevalent in refractory dry eye.
Bartonella bacteria is transmitted to humans via scratches, bites or licks from flea-infested cats. Bartonella henselae infection is responsible for roughly 22,000 cases of cat scratch disease per year in the United States. Its prevalence is higher in children and young adults, aged 21 to 35, and those who have daily close contact with cats, such as veterinarians. Patients commonly have systemic symptoms including a vesicle/papule forming at the site of inoculation, lymphadenopathy, fever and malaise. Ocular involvement occurs in 5% to 10% of patients, with blurry vision being the most common symptom.
Multifocal vitelliform dystrophy (MVD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disease that presents as bilateral multiple yellow lesions within the posterior pole, which is caused by subretinal accumulation of vitelliform material. The age of onset is highly variable, ranging from five to 59 years old, and common symptoms include blurry vision and central metamorphopsia. Previously reported cases of multifocal vitelliform lesions have been described as raised yellow lesions located near the macula, along the retinal vascular arcades or adjacent to the optic nerve.
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